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Recent estimates of UK shale-gas resources raise the possibility that declines in existing domestic production may in the future be offset by unconventional gas, although uncertainties remain. First among these are the size of the recoverable resource, production rates and the extent to which residents’ and environmentalists’ concerns can be accommodated. Accordingly while shale-gas resource development is expected to proceed in the EU, North Africa and China there are limiting factors and higher cost than in the US. The impact of shale-gas production on EU gas prices is not expected to be anywhere near as great as in the US.